This is Edgar Dale’s Learning Cone, first developed in the 60’s but reaffirmedby the research and adapted again and again - other derivatives of it are alsoknown as the learning pyramid, or learning triangle. The 'LOTS' stands for 'Lower-Order Thinking Skills' and the 'HOTS' stands for Higher-Order Thinking Skills.' Project-base learning experiences and 21st Century Learning skills lend themselves seamlessly to creating HOTS for our students.

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What their research tells us is that on average after two weeks we recall:
  • less than 10% of the content of what we read,
  • about 20% of what we hear, like from a lecture
  • 20 to 30% of content simultaneously using two or more media, like looking at pictures or watching a movie
  • about 30% of lessons involving demonstration
  • about 50% of content that we hear and see like while watching a demonstration that uses two or more media simultaneously
  • 65-80%% of content that involves practice by doing like participating in a discussion or giving a talk
  • and about 90% that involves the teaching of a concept to others as well as the immediate application of the learning within the context of a real time,real world task or a simulation of that task

All of this operates on a continuum from passive receiving of information and traditional learning with a primary focus on LOTS (lower order thinking skills) to active participation and engagement with information, and a focus on HOTS (higher order thinking skills).